Research

Science Saturday: A preclinical step toward treating chronic dry mouth
December 7, 2022
Mayo Clinic researchers replicated chronic dry mouth from radiation damage in preclinical models, laying the foundation for stem cell research to regenerate salivary tissue after cancer. This discovery uses targeted X-radiation to mimic human injury and establish a lab model for testing cellula...
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Science Saturday: Researchers find other diseases may mimic rare brain disorder linked to dementia
December 1, 2022
Mayo Clinic researchers and collaborators have identified key clinical findings that can help clinicians recognize patients with potentially treatable causes of rapidly progressive dementia, who would otherwise be misdiagnosed with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (also known as CJD). Their study wa...
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Real-world evidence study of regenerative medicine and shoulder surgery
November 20, 2022
Applying regenerative medicine to a common shoulder surgery could have an impact on the need for follow-up revision surgery in some patients, according to a Mayo Clinic study of real-world evidence.Mayo Clinic researchers analyzed the largest set of data available to determine if adding bone ...
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Science Saturday: Seeking a cellular therapy for chronic kidney disease
November 19, 2022
Every year, more than 130,000 people in the U.S. are diagnosed with end-stage kidney disease, with most cases caused by diabetes. Newer therapies show promise to slow kidney failure rates, but none stop progression to end-stage kidney failure. The research goal of LaTonya Hickson, M.D., is to ...
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AI transforms smartwatch ECG signals into a diagnostic tool for heart failure
November 19, 2022
Two health tech advances are at the heart of a study published in Nature Medicine: an app and backend infrastructure to let patients remotely share smartwatch ECG data with their clinicians in an easy and secure way, and the modification of a proven 12-lead ECG artificial intelligence (AI) algo...
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Trailblazing scientists discuss exposome research, precision nutrition at Mayo Clinic’s Individualizing Medicine Conference   
November 19, 2022
ROCHESTER, Minn. — The next frontier in individualized medicine is here. Mayo Clinic's 11th annual Individualizing Medicine Conference on Nov. 2–3 will focus on "Exploring the Exposome" — the cumulative measure of environmental influences and associated biological responses throughout the...
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Science Saturday: AI enables early identification, intervention in debilitating lung disease
November 19, 2022
In a new study published in Nature Medicine, Mayo Clinic and several research collaborators from across the U.S., describe a successful new artificial intelligence, or AI, -enabled tool to identify idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, also called IPF, before patients have recognizable symptoms. Th...
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High adopters of AI-enabled screening tool are more likely to diagnose left ventricular dysfunction than low adopters, Mayo Clinic study finds
November 19, 2022
ROCHESTER, Minn. — Artificial intelligence can improve diagnosis and treatment for patients, but first the AI-enabled clinical tools have to be easily available and used. New research from Mayo Clinic finds that clinicians who were high adopters of an AI-enabled clinical decision support tool...
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Science Saturday: Mayo Clinic study indicates U.S. rural counties have higher diabetes-related deaths
November 19, 2022
In a new study, Mayo Clinic researchers identified substantial health disparities in rural versus urban areas in diabetes-related deaths, with other disparities based on gender. Using nationwide data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the researchers examined rates and trends...
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Beating the odds for a transplant
November 19, 2022
When the phone rang in the middle of a Sunday night news program, and the caller ID flashed Mayo Clinic, Dennis Pinkerton and his wife, Rhonda, knew it was a pivotal moment. The doctor on the line delivered news he thought he'd never hear. A pair of donor lungs — kept alive and breathing on a...
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The role of goal-directed and habitual processes in food consumption under stress after outcome devaluation with taste aversion.
People are more likely to engage in various suboptimal behaviors such as overeating, addictive behaviors, and short-sighted financial decision-making when they are under stress. Traditional dual-process models propose that stress can impair the ability to engage in goal-directed behavior so that people have to rely on habitual behavior. Support for this idea comes from a study by Schwabe and Wolf (2010), in which stressed participants continued to perform a learned instrumental behavior leading to a liquid after the liquid was devalued with a satiation procedure. Based on these findings, suboptimal behavior under stress is often seen as habitual. In the present study, we conducted a conceptu...
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Acute gut microbiome changes after traumatic brain injury are associated with chronic deficits in decision-making and impulsivity in male rats.
The mechanisms underlying chronic psychiatric-like impairments after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are currently unknown. The goal of the present study was to assess the role of diet and the gut microbiome in psychiatric symptoms after TBI. Rats were randomly assigned to receive a high-fat diet (HFD) or calorie-matched low-fat diet (LFD). After 2 weeks of free access, rats began training on the rodent gambling task (RGT), a measure of risky decision-making and motor impulsivity. After training, rats received a bilateral frontal TBI or a sham procedure and continued postinjury testing for 10 weeks. Fecal samples were collected before injury and 3-, 30-, and 60 days postinjury to evaluate the g...
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Rhesus monkeys with damage to amygdala or orbitofrontal cortex perform well on novelty-based memory tasks.
The amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are interconnected regions that serve as key nodes in brain circuits supporting social and affective behaviors. An important question that has come into focus is whether these regions also play a fundamental role in responding to novelty. One possibility is that these regions are important for discriminating novel from familiar stimuli. An alternative possibility is that these regions contribute to affective responses to stimuli in novelty-based tasks. For example, the amygdala and OFC could contribute to assessing novel stimuli as being threatening or previously selected stimuli as having reward value. The present study tested rhesus macaque monke...
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Divergent effects of oral cannabis oil extracts marketed as C. indica or C. sativa on exertion of cognitive effort in rats.
The main psychoactive compound within the cannabis plant, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is thought to drive both the sensation of “high” and the cognitive impairments associated with cannabis consumption. Researchers keen to understand how cannabis impairs cognition have, therefore, studied the behavioral effects of systemic injections of THC in animal models. However, cannabis contains multiple other cannabinoids which may critically modulate the resulting cognitive effects. Users also typically eat or smoke cannabis, leading to concern over the translational validity of pure THC injections. We, therefore, tested whether acute oral administration of two different commercially availabl...
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Behavioral and neurochemical effects of nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor activation in the social defeat protocol.
The nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor (NOP receptor) has wide expression in the nervous system and is involved in neurotransmitter release. However, the role of the NOPR in depression is not widely recognized. This study aims to evaluate behavioral and biochemical effects of the NOPR agonist Ro 65-6570 in mice submitted to social defeat protocol. The open-field test, social interaction test, and tail suspension test were applied to evaluate depressive behavior in male Swiss mice. Blood and brain tissue samples were obtained to evaluate the oxidative stress. The NOP agonist, Ro 65-6570 (1 mg/kg), or the social defeat stress reduced exploration rate in the open-field test. The social defeat stre...
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Cognitive and arginine metabolic correlates of temporal dysfunction in the MIA rat model of schizophrenia risk.
As a hallmark characteristic of schizophrenia, abnormal perception of time is thought to arise from cognitive impairment; however, the absence of translational models indexing this pathological relationship creates barriers to understanding the functional and biological bases of timing impairments. Here, we investigate the relationship between timing and cognition using the maternal immune activation (MIA) rat model of schizophrenia. We additionally investigate the role of prefrontal cortex L-arginine metabolism in these processes via high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results revealed that MIA rats exhibit greater underestimation of interval ...
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Choice-confirmation bias and gradual perseveration in human reinforcement learning.
Do we preferentially learn from outcomes that confirm our choices? In recent years, we investigated this question in a series of studies implementing increasingly complex behavioral protocols. The learning rates fitted in experiments featuring partial or complete feedback, as well as free and forced choices, were systematically found to be consistent with a choice-confirmation bias. One of the prominent behavioral consequences of the confirmatory learning rate pattern is choice hysteresis: that is, the tendency of repeating previous choices, despite contradictory evidence. However, choice-confirmatory pattern of learning rates may spuriously arise from not taking into consideration an explic...
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