Research

Mayo Clinic Minute: Treatment and research of glioblastoma
July 18, 2024
Editor's note:  Glioblastoma Awareness Day is July 17 Considered the most aggressive type of brain cancer, glioblastoma grows rapidly, destroying healthy tissue. Globally, approximately 300,000 people are diagnosed each year with glioblastoma. Watch: The Mayo Clinic Minute https://youtu.be/DP7...
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Tomorrow’s Cure: How DNA guides cancer detection
July 13, 2024
What if you knew you'd get sick before you ever felt symptoms? If it was a cold, that information is useful. In the case of cancer, it is lifesaving. This week's podcast episode of Tomorrow's Cure explores how DNA could be used to detect blood cancers before they ever develop. Episode experts i...
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Training the next generation of clinical trial leaders
July 3, 2024
Clinical trials are the gold standard of medical advancement, but designing and conducting them requires a wide range of knowledge and skills not often taught in medical or graduate school. This gap in training is something Mayo's new Clinical Trialist Training Program is designed to fill....
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Biology-based criteria for diagnosis, staging of Alzheimer’s disease
June 30, 2024
Alzheimer's medical illustration of amyloid plaques The Alzheimer's Association has published revised criteria for the diagnosis and staging of Alzheimer's disease that are based on the biology of the disease and reflect recent advancements in research, diagnostics and treatment. "Defining dise...
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RegenBio Summit: Could a molecular scissors heal disease?
June 20, 2024
Gene editing, a "molecular scissors" that targets and alters the cellular roots of disease, will be in the spotlight at a Mayo Clinic-sponsored national conference. Birgit Schultes, Ph.D., will discuss the potential and pitfalls of the emerging gene editing tool CRISPR Cas9 in her keynote addre...
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New Mayo Clinic technology helps solve the unsolvable in rare disease diagnoses 
June 8, 2024
At Mayo Clinic, the mission to solve the unsolvable is at the heart of every rare disease case. Each diagnosis is a testament to perseverance, innovation and the relentless pursuit of answers. This commitment has led researchers at the Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine to develop a...
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Ultra-clean rooms are shaping the next generation of biotherapeutics
June 8, 2024
Outfitted in gloves, coveralls, cap, face mask, goggles and even shoe covers, a biomanufacturing engineer moves slowly and deliberately through an ultra-clean space used to manufacture biotherapeutics. This sci-fi-like scene plays out in a "clean room" facility, guided by Current Good Manufactu...
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8 innovations in neuroscience and brain research at Mayo Clinic
June 7, 2024
Mayo Clinic researchers lead discoveries into many conditions, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia, as well as how the brain fundamentally works.Powered by WP...
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Teasing apart sex differences in heart disease
June 7, 2024
DeLisa Fairweather, Ph.D., and the students in her lab are identifying biological sex differences to help in the diagnosis and treatment of the deadly heart disease myocarditis.Powered by ...
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New research platform assesses brain cancer mutations during surgery
June 2, 2024
JACKSONVILLE, Fla. — Brain cancer is difficult to treat when it starts growing, and a prevalent type, known as a glioma, has a poor five-year survival rate. In a new study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Mayo Clinic researchers report on a new surgical platform u...
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Translational research in punishment learning.
Punishment learning is learning of the causal relationship between responses and their adverse or undesirable consequences. Here, we review our translational approach for understanding whether, when, and how individuals differ in what they learn during punishment, and how these differences in learning may drive persistent poor or maladaptive decisions. We show that individual differences in punishment insensitivity can emerge from differences between individuals in what they learn about punishment (instrumental contingency knowledge), rather than differences in aversive valuation, reward valuation, general (impulsivity), or specific (habit) behavioral control. These differences in instrument...
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Fear attenuation collaborations to optimize translation.
Here, we describe the efforts we dedicated to the challenge of modifying entrenched emotionally laden memories. In recent years, through a number of collaborations and using a combination of behavioral, molecular, and computational approaches, we: (a) developed novel approaches to fear attenuation that engage mechanisms that differ from those engaged during extinction (Monfils), (b) examined whether our approaches can generalize to other reinforcers (Lee, Gonzales, Chaudhri, Cofresi, and Monfils), (c) derived principled explanations for the differential outcomes of our approaches (Niv, Gershman, Song, and Monfils), (d) developed better assessment metrics to evaluate outcome success (Shumake ...
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The role of midbrain dopamine cells projecting to the insular cortex in mediated performance: Implications for animal models of reality testing.
A growing body of literature indicates that mediated learning techniques have specific utility for tapping into reality testing in animal models of neuropsychiatric illness. In particular, recent work has shown that animal models that recapitulate various endophenotypes of schizophrenia are particularly vulnerable to impairments in reality testing when undergoing mediated learning. Multiple studies have indicated that these effects are dopamine receptor 2-dependent and correlated with aberrant insular cortex (IC) activity. However, until now, the connection between dopamine and the IC had not been investigated. Here, we utilized a novel intersectional approach to label mesencephalic dopamine...
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Mediated learning: A computational rendering of ketamine-induced symptoms.
This article explores the contribution of the double error dynamic asymptote computational associative learning model to understanding the role of mediated learning mechanisms in the generation of spurious associations, as those postulated to characterize schizophrenia. Three sets of simulations for mediated conditioning, mediated extinction, and a mediated enhancement of latent inhibition, a unique model prediction, are presented. For each set of simulations, a parameter that modulates the impact of associative memory retrieval and the dissipation of nonperceptual activated representations through the network was manipulated. The effect of this operation is analyzed and compared to ketamine...
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Prediction, perception, and psychosis: Application of associative learning theories to schizophrenia research.
In recent years, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, such as hallucinations and delusions. This progress has been significantly aided by the use of associative learning-based approaches in human subjects and preclinical animal models. Here, we first review experimental research focusing on the abnormal processing of absent stimuli using three different conditioning phenomena: conditioned hallucinations, mediated conditioning, and trace conditioning. We then review studies investigating the ability to reduce focal processing of physically present but informationally redundant stimuli using habituation, latent inhibition, and blo...
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Emerging role of the lateral habenula in conditioned inhibition and depression.
Associating a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) with the absence of a biologically significant unconditioned stimulus (US) confers conditioned inhibitory properties upon the CS, referred to as conditioned inhibition. Conditioned inhibition and conditioned excitation, an association of a CS with the presence of the US, are fundamental components of associative learning. While the neural substrates of conditioned excitation are well established, those of conditioned inhibition remain poorly understood. Recent research has shed light on the lateral habenula (LHb) engagement in conditioned inhibition, along with the midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This article reviews behavioral tasks conducted t...
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